The craze length was found to change linearly with the square root of time and the rate of crazing was found to vary exponentially with the applied stress above a certain stress level. A recent study indicated that approximately 25% of plastic component failures are associated with esc1. Either to itself or to other materials, there are glues available for most applications. Wyzgoski, prediction of environmental stress cracking of polycarbonate from solubility considerations, journal of applied polymer science, 23, 11531166, 1979. Of the two types of polymer, polycarbonate has been used in a wide range of products, since its introduction in the 1960s, and the problem of. Phenol and its chemical derivatives are essential for production of polycarbonates, epoxies, bakelite, nylon, detergents.
This stress relaxation allows testing to run without failure for very long periods 1,500 hours. The key difference between polypropylene and polycarbonate is that polypropylene consists of aliphatic hydrocarbon chains, while polycarbonate consists of aromatic hydrocarbon chains. Environmental stress crack resistance of polyethylene stress crack reagent concentration in the case of the most commonly used stress crack reagent, igepal co630, as the concentration of water in the stress cracking media increases, the faster the esc onset. The 4 wheels make this bag much easier to use when traveling compared to 2 wheeled luggage. According to astm d883, stress cracking is defined as an external or internal crack in a plastic caused by tensile stresses less than its shortterm mechanical. Because of this, environmental stress cracking and creep rupture are parallel failure mechanisms. Esc is a failure mechanism whereby a plastic resin is effected by a chemical agent while simultaneously under tensile loading. Environmental stress cracking esc is considered a leading cause of plastic part failure.
Environmental stress cracking of plastics 9781859570647. Pdf determination of environmental stress cracking resistance of. Bpa is a precursor to important plastics, primarily certain polycarbonates and epoxy resins, as well as some polysulfones and certain niche materials. The bent strip test is a constant strain test, but polyethylene relaxes when strained. Shop for polycarbonate luggage sets online at target. It is the premature embrittlement and subsequent cracking of a plastic due to the simultaneous and synergistic action of stress and contact with a chemical agent. Environmental stress cracking esc is widely regarded as the leading cause of plastic product failure. Polycarbonate is also considerably less toxic than many other plastics, and the ease with which it can be recycled only adds to its environmental friendliness. At creative mechanisms, we have used polycarbonate in a number of applications across a range of industries. Stresscracking resistance an overview sciencedirect topics. Grilon cf 6s is particularly suitable for boilinbag applications. So yes, environmental stress cracking is by far the most likely culprit and polycarbonate is famous for it. Environmental stress cracking resistance helpful for the.
Free shipping on everything at overstock your online luggage sets store. Environmental stress crack resistance of polyethylene today, this test is specified less frequently because it is not as aggressive towards modern resins. Jansen stork technimet new berlin, wisconsin e nvironmental stress cracking esc is a phenomenon in which a plastic resin is degraded by a chemical agent while under stress, and it is the leading cause of plastic component failure. The variation of stress with time was recorded, and the surface cracking was observed. Standard test method for environmental stresscracking of. The wear parts cracked when exposed to cleaning chemicals. Nov 30, 2016 makrolon is the brand name for polycarbonate plastic manufactured by bayer ag. Environmental stress crack resistance of polyethylene. In last months article we defined the terms environmental stress cracking and solvent stress cracking, briefly explained the mechanisms involved, and provided a couple of examples of actual case studies.
In general this problem falls into two subcategories. Definition of environmental stress cracking esc environmental stress cracking esc in plastics means the failure at about room temperature due to continuously acting external andor internal stresses in the presence of surface active substances known as stress cracking agents such as alcohols, soaps, dyes, agents containing moisture. Tensile properties of the exposed sample can then be measured. At a high enough stress a polymer will crack even with a poorlycompatible solvent. Pdf how to avoid environmental stress cracking in medical. If its not abused, it should last longer than cheap luggage. While both polymers have high tensile moduli and crack resistance, they can be sensitive to environmental stress cracking when exposed to the very wide range of liquids encountered in modern hospitals. Environmental stress cracking esc is the premature cracking of a polymer due to the combined action of a stress and a fluid. Affects of cold temperature cycling on polycarbonate. Luckily, polycarbonate is a relatively easy plastic to stick. Esc is one of the main reasons for shortening the lifetime of polymers, accounting for about 25% of the failures 10, where the formation of surface crazes and cracks result in lower properties. Environmental stress cracking the the chemical agent does. Furthermore, its considerable heat resistance can be enhanced with a variety of flame retardants without significantly lowering any of its other properties.
The environmental stress cracking effect of chemicals on polymers can be measured by exposing the polymer to the chemical under the desired conditions. Polymers studied using this technique include polycarbonate pc. It is associated with the phenomenon of crazing and solvent plasticization of the polymer. The problem lies, in part, in the definition of stress cracking. Li b a department of macromolecular science and the key laboratory of molecular engineering of polymers, fudan university, shanghai, 200433, china b shanghai koito automotive lamp co. Environmental stress crack resistance lyondellbasell. Polycarbonate luggage sets find great luggage deals. Inhibition of environmental stress cracking in polycarbonate. The existing design had a metal insert pressed into the body of the part, which created stress concentrations. Astm d1975 16 standard test method for environmental stress.
Environmental stress cracking refers specifically to a phenomenon. The tensile stress may be applied externally or may simply be a consequence of residual, or moldedin, stresses. Aug 18, 2017 polypropylene is a lowcost thermoplastic elastomer, which consists of aliphatic hydrocarbon chains and is mainly used in packaging industries owing to its high fatigue resistance, good chemical and environmental stress cracking resistance, low density, and ease of processing. Get ready to roam with targets selection of carryon and checked luggage, backpacks, travel accessories and more. Polycarbonate is prone to environmental stress cracking esc in the presence of certain oils and liquids. Phosgene is a valued industrial building block, especially for the production of urethanes and polycarbonate plastics. Polycarbonate is sensitive not just only to solvent cracking, such as those seen on battery cases, but to a range of other common liquids that are likely to be found in hospitals, as previous studies had shown. Environmental stress cracking of polycarbonate catheter. Environmental stress cracking the the chemical agent. A study, using the compressedring environmental stress cracking resistance test.
Improvement of environmental stress cracking resistance of. The environmental stress crazing of polycarbonate springerlink. Resistance to this mode of failure can be best gauged through constanttensileload testing, while taking into account the differences in yield point among various polyethylenes. Polycarbonate is among the most widely used plastics that consists. Simultaneous action of stress and strain on plastics in contact with specific fluids causes the onset of cracking and embrittlement of plastic known as environmental stress cracking. I did do a brief search online and it seems that curv is the brand name for polypropylene plasticfabric. Read up on packing tips and travel guides to prepare you for your next trip. The shell is thin, and most of the hardware is plastic. Mckeen, in film properties of plastics and elastomers fourth edition, 2017. Esc is the consequence of a combination of mechanical stress and exposure to an aggressive chemical. The strain in the test environmental stress cracking of plastics h. A manufacturer of bacon slicing equipment was having environmental stress cracking problems on a polycarbonate wear strip. Evaluating environmental stress cracking of medical. It is called environmental stress cracking and basically it means that solvents cause the material to crack due to built in stresses in the polycarbonate.
Polycarbonate has thousands of applications, from cd manufacture to aircraft cockpit canopies, but the largest user of polycarbonate is the construction sector, where is a replacement for glass. With that being said, it is still a better made hardside spinner case than those that you can purchase in department stores for less money. Difference between polypropylene and polycarbonate compare. Plastic containers may crack due to the presence of certain substances like oil, detergent or wetting agents. To explore the possibility of using surface coating to reduce environmental stress cracking esc of transparent polycarbonate pc parts, silicone coated and sio 2 coated pc were tested in a selfmade threepoint bending apparatus in the presence of ethanol. Polycarbonate is prone to environmentalstress cracking esc in the presence of certain oils and liquids. Under the conditions of the test method, high local multiaxial stresses are developed through the introduction of a controlled imperfection 2, 3. A stress analysis was made to analyse the criteria for craze initiation and growth. The environmental crazing from a central hole in extruded polycarbonate sheets, using ethanol as a crazing liquid, was studied. Environmental stress cracking resistance helps in evaluating the effect of environment on polyethylene containers that are blow molded. Environmental stress cracking of polypropylene springerlink. Free shipping on everything at overstock your online luggage store.
Environmental stress cracking esc is one of the most common causes of unexpected brittle failure of thermoplastic especially amorphous polymers known at present. Environmental stress cracking esc is considered a lead ing cause of plastic part failure. Since this is responsible for 15% of all failures of plastics components, environmental stress cracking has long been the subject of intensive research. Environmental stress cracking can take place through continuous crack growth or via a stepwise progressive mechanism of cracking and arrest, depending on the molecular structure of the plastic, the composition of the chemical agent, the level of stress, and other environmental conditions. This month we want to conclude the discussion with a few more case studies and then discuss tests and material selection techniques that. Shop polycarbonate luggage sale at ebags experts in bags and accessories since 1999. Environmental stress cracking of poly3hydroxibutyrate. It can be laminated to make bulletproof glass, although bulletresistant is more accurate for the thinner windows, such as are used in bullet. Environmental stress cracking esc is not the result of the continual battle that the plastics industry has in convincing environmentalists and politicians that plastics can be the solution to environmental problems and not the cause. The potential for environmental stress cracking is of paramount concern when plastics are used in medical device components such as luers and stopcocks. Polycarbonate is an incredibly useful plastic for applications requiring transparency and high impact resistance. Stress cracking of wear strips case study curbell plastics. Environmental stress cracking is involved with some 25% of plastic part failures. Plastic failure through environmental stress cracking.
It is a lighter alternative to glass and a natural uv filter, so it is often used in eyewear. According to astm d883, stress cracking is defined as an external or internal crack in a plastic caused by tensile stresses less. Test method the strain in the test environmental stress. Environmental stress cracking in polyethylene takes place because of interlamellar failure, which in turn is caused by relaxation of tie molecules. Often we tend to group all the problems into the environmental category, but in reality most of the field problems we see have to do with solvent stress cracking. Environmental stress cracking esc or stress corrosion cracking scc seemed the most likely cause of the brittle cracks seen in the retained samples, but no records had been kept by the hospital of what fluids the connectors had made contact during service. Put one sticker on a polycarbonate motorcycle helmet and all the impact resistance is gone. Determination of environmental stress cracking resistance of. Any loss of elongation and tensile strength would indicate environmental stress cracking. Evaluating environmental stress cracking of medical plastics.1272 683 1367 1142 710 343 178 221 327 457 1154 959 355 1029 265 811 160 1352 387 1233 47 1346 484 900 1029 1404 1359 150 239